Instal WordPress dengan Ubuntu 22.04, NGINX, MariaDB dan PHP 8.2

Tutorial langkah demi langkah dengan kata-kata mudah untuk pemula mutlak

Pada artikel ini, Anda akan mempelajari proses instalasi WordPress secara manual di server Ubuntu 22.04 menggunakan NGINX, MariaDB, dan PHP 8.2. Stack ini akan menyediakan platform yang kuat dan efisien untuk menjalankan situs web WordPress Anda dengan kecepatan yang luar biasa.

Ikuti 3 langkah ini dan tonton videonya. Butuh bantuan? hubungi saya. 😊

  1. Menyiapkan DNS Cloudflare
  2. Mendapatkan Ubuntu Server
  3. Menyebarkan LEMP Stack

Sekarang sebelum Anda memulai, berikut tip singkatnya. Gunakan Search and Replace Extension untuk mengubah example.com secara massal ke domain Anda sendiri di halaman web ini.

Kiat hemat waktu bagi pengguna Google Chrome.
search replace

Bagian A: Menjaga Nameserver Cloudflare tetap aktif

Kami akan menggunakan Cloudflare DNS untuk mendapatkan sertifikat Let’s Encrypt Wildcard SSL. Selesaikan langkah ini terlebih dahulu untuk menikmati migrasi zero-downtime.

Periksa Nameserver Saat Ini

Bagian B: Siapkan Server Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS

Ubuntu
Logo Ubuntu

1. Daftar Vultr untuk mendapatkan $100 Kredit gratis (Berlaku selama 30 hari)

Sebagai seseorang yang telah mencoba begitu banyak perusahaan server Cloud, pengalaman saya mengatakan bahwa Anda tidak bisa salah dengan Vultr. Orang-orang ini tulus dan peduli dalam hal dukungan dan layanan.

vultr

⚡ Kinerja

  • NVME / SSD
  • CPU 3,7 GHz
  • Kecepatan Jaringan Hingga 5Gbps
  • Pusat data di Amerika, Eropa, Asia, Austraillia
  • IPV6 siap

💡 Fitur

  • Dasbor Ramah Pemula
  • Sekali klik ke Snapshot
  • Pencadangan Otomatis (Berbayar)
  • Firewall Awan Gratis
  • Perlindungan DDoS (Berbayar)
  • 100% Virtualisasi KVM

⚙ Dukungan

  • PayPal/Kartu
  • Dukungan Tiket 24/7
  • Dokumentasi

2. Buat Server VPS baru

Cukup klik pada tombol plus untuk memulai

Deploy New Server

3. Pilih Jenis Server

Choose Server

Selanjutnya, Anda perlu memilih CPU & Storage Technology, Anda dapat memilih “AMD High Performance”.

CPU & Storage Tech

4. Pilih Lokasi Server

Pilih lokasi server yang dekat dengan target audiens Anda.

vultr server region 1

5. Pilih Ubuntu 22.04 x64 OS

Cloud Operating System

Saat ini, Ubuntu 20.04×64 dan 22.04×64 keduanya adalah versi LTS (Long Term Supported) yang kompatibel dengan sebagian besar paket yang akan kita instal.

ubuntu releases 2

6. Pilih Ukuran Server

server size

Paket $6/bulan akan menjadi titik awal yang bagus untuk blog baru. Anda dapat meningkatkan kapan saja sesuai kebutuhan.

Tip: Jika Anda bermigrasi, periksa Total ukuran instalasi di Info kesehatan situs.

Site health info

7. Aktifkan IPV6, Cadangan

vultr enable backup ipv6

8. Tambahkan kunci SSH

Ini adalah langkah opsional yang direkomendasikan untuk meningkatkan keamanan.

Add SSH key
  • Klik tombol Add New untuk menambahkan kunci SSH baru untuk mengirimkan 🔒Kunci Publik Anda.
  • Hasilkan Kunci menggunakan metode di bawah ini sesuai OS Anda.
win os
  • Unduh aplikasi PuTTy.
  • Cari PuTTygen di menu Start
  • Klik pada tombol Generate dan arahkan pointer mouse
  • Salin kunci publik dan berikan ke Vultr
  • Masukkan kata sandi kunci
  • Simpan 🔑Kunci Pribadi di lokasi teraman.
  • Ini bisa digunakan untuk login ke SSH atau SFTP.
linux 2
  • Jalankan: ssh-keygen -t rsa. Untuk kunci 4096-bit yang lebih aman, jalankan: ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096
  • Tekan enter ketika ditanya di mana Anda ingin menyimpan kunci (ini akan menggunakan lokasi default).
  • Masukkan frasa sandi untuk kunci Anda.
  • Jalankan cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub – ini akan memberi Anda kunci dalam format yang tepat untuk ditempelkan ke panel kontrol.
  • Pastikan Anda membuat cadangan file ~/.ssh/id_rsa. Ini tidak dapat dipulihkan jika hilang.

Pilih kunci SSH Anda

Mengikuti langkah-langkah ini akan melampirkan kunci publik Anda ke Instance baru Anda. Kemudian, Anda akan dapat masuk ke SSH menggunakan kata sandi Plain Text dan kunci SSH.

select SSH public key

9. Tautkan aturan Firewall Web ke Instansi Server

Firewall
  1. Klik Manage dan buat Grup Firewall baru.
  2. Izinkan port TCP 22 untuk SSH. 80 untuk HTTP dan 443 HTTPS untuk aturan IPV4 dan IPV6 keduanya.
  3. Setelah selesai, tautkan grup Firewall ke Instance Anda.
firewall status
Hanya menerima koneksi TCP dari 22, 80, 443
Link Firewall Group
Tautkan aturan firewall ke instance baru

10. Masukkan Nama Host dan label klik Deploy Now

server hostname label

Sekarang, Anda akan melihat pemasangan dalam proses

Instance Installing

11. Buka halaman Instance Baru

Salin alamat IP, nama pengguna dan kata sandi. Port default Anda adalah 22.

new instance info page

12. Nonaktifkan Login Kata Sandi

Untuk alasan keamanan, direkomendasikan untuk menonaktifkan autentikasi kata sandi dan hanya mengizinkan autentikasi berbasis kunci.

  1. Edit berkas konfigurasi nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config
  2. Temukan (CTRL + W) dan cari PasswordAuthentication
  3. Ubah nilai dari ya ke tidak
  4. Untuk menyimpan, ketik, CTRL + O
  5. Mulai ulang layanan SSH menggunakan perintah sudo service ssh restart
disable password auth
Nonaktifkan Autentikasi Kata Sandi

Mulai waktu berikutnya, Anda dapat menggunakan SSH melalui key saja seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam video.

Untuk Linux atau Mac, gunakan Terminal dengan perintah seperti ini

ssh root@192.168.1.1 -p 22 -i id_rsa

Langkah 13. Nonaktifkan UFW

Ketika Anda menerapkan instance baru di VULTR, instance tersebut dilengkapi dengan UFW (Uncomplicated Firewall) yang diaktifkan yang membuat semua port diblokir kecuali port SSH 22. Ini dapat mengembalikan ERR_CONNECTION_REFUSED Error di browser. Untuk memperbaikinya, saya sarankan agar UFW dinonaktifkan.

ufw disable

Cukup penjelasan untuk hal-hal dasar. Sekarang, saya akan mempercepat proses awal untuk menerapkan WordPress pada tumpukan LEMP.

Bagian C. Menyebarkan WordPress pada LEMP Stack

1. Memperbarui repositori

Ketik perintah di bawah ini dan tekan tombol enter

sudo -s
apt update && apt upgrade -y && apt dist-upgrade && apt autoclean && apt autoremove -y && reboot

atau

wget -qO update https://dl.gulshankumar.net/update && chmod +x update

Lain kali, selalu gunakan perintah pintasan di bawah ini untuk memperbarui.

./update

2. Instal MariaDB dengan keamanan

Login lagi dan masukkan perintah berikut

sudo apt install mariadb-server -y && sudo mysql_secure_installation

Jawab pertanyaan di bawah ini

  • Enter current password for root (enter for none): Нажмите клавишу Enter
  • Switch to unix_socket authentication [Y/n]: Введите n и нажмите клавишу Enter.
  • Set root password? [Y/n]: Нажмите клавишу Enter.
  • New password: Скопируйте надежный пароль из генератора паролей Dashlane. Чтобы вставить пароль в консоль SSH, щелкните правой кнопкой мыши и нажмите клавишу Enter. Пароль не будет виден на экране.
  • Re-enter new password: Щелкните правой кнопкой мыши и снова нажмите клавишу Enter.

Setelah kata sandi berhasil ditetapkan, Anda akan melihat

Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
... Success!

Juga, Anda perlu menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan berikut.

  • Remove anonymous users? [Y/n]: Снова нажмите клавишу Enter.
  • Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n]: Снова нажмите клавишу Enter.
  • Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n]: Снова нажмите клавишу Enter.
  • Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n]: Снова нажмите клавишу Enter.

3. Buat Database baru untuk WordPress

Login ke MySQL, tekan tombol enter ketika meminta kata sandi.

mysql -u root -p

Buat Database baru, dan berikan hak istimewa untuk menggunakan pengguna dengan kata sandi. Di sinilah WordPress menyimpan semua informasi posting, halaman, tema, plugin, dll.

create database wordpress;
grant all on wordpress.* to gulshan@localhost identified by '5pY8CKJxDRJEGQNkX7';
flush privileges;
exit;

Di mana Anda …
basis data adalah wordpress
nama pengguna adalah gulshan
kata sandi adalah 5pY8CKJxDRJEGQNkX7

Tip: Pertimbangkan untuk menggunakan kredensial login yang unik

4. Instal PHP 8.2, NGINX dan atur Izin

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php -y && apt update && apt install php8.2-fpm php8.2-common php8.2-mysql php8.2-xml php8.2-xmlrpc php8.2-curl php8.2-gd php8.2-imagick php8.2-cli php8.2-dev php8.2-imap php8.2-mbstring php8.2-soap php8.2-zip php8.2-bcmath -y && sed -i 's/;cgi.fix_pathinfo=1/cgi.fix_pathinfo=0/g' /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini && service php8.2-fpm restart && apt install nginx -y && chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/ && chmod -R 755 /var/www

Mengubah Konfigurasi PHP

Sebagian besar tema dan plugin mewah membutuhkan konfigurasi PHP kelas atas untuk dapat berjalan. Oleh karena itu, kita harus melakukan perubahan ini.

sed -i 's/memory_limit = 128M/memory_limit = 512M/g' /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i 's/post_max_size = 8M/post_max_size = 128M/g' /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i 's/max_file_uploads = 20/max_file_uploads = 30/g' /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i 's/max_execution_time = 30/max_execution_time = 900/g' /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i 's/max_input_time = 60/max_input_time = 3000/g' /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i 's/upload_max_filesize = 2M/upload_max_filesize = 128M/g' /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini
service php8.2-fpm restart

5. Instal Sertifikat SSL Wildcard Let’s Encrypt

Buat file cloudflare.ini di dalam direktori /root/.secrets/.

mkdir -p /root/.secrets/ && cd /root/.secrets/ && nano cloudflare.ini

Tambahkan kode di bawah ini dan simpan menggunakan CTRL + O dan keluar menggunakan CTRL + X

dns_cloudflare_email = "your-cloudflare-email@example.com"
dns_cloudflare_api_key = "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX"

Temukan email Cloudflare dan Global API key Anda di “Profil Saya” > Token API > Global API Key

chmod 0400 /root/.secrets/cloudflare.ini

Instal Certbot dan DNS Authenticator sesuai dengan OS dan server web HTTP

snap install --beta --classic certbot
snap set certbot trust-plugin-with-root=ok
snap install --beta certbot-dns-cloudflare
snap connect certbot:plugin certbot-dns-cloudflare

Dapatkan Sertifikat SSL Wildcard

certbot certonly --dns-cloudflare --dns-cloudflare-credentials /root/.secrets/cloudflare.ini -d example.com,*.example.com --preferred-challenges dns-01

Set Automatic Renewal using Cron Job

  • Jenis crontab -e
  • Ketik 1 untuk nano editor
  • Masukkan perintah di bawah ini dan simpan
0 0 * * *  /etc/init.d/nginx reload >/dev/null 2>&1

Uji pembaruan

certbot renew --dry-run

6. Mengkonfigurasi Blokir Server Nginx

Ini penting di mana Anda perlu mengkonfigurasi domain Anda, bagaimana NGINX harus menangani permintaan HTTP Anda.

Hapus blok server default.

rm /etc/nginx/sites-available/default && rm /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default

Buat blok server baru

cd /etc/nginx/sites-available/
nano example.com
  1. Ganti example.com dengan domain sendiri
  2. Masukkan kode di bawah ini dan tekan ctrl+o untuk menyimpan dan ctrl+x untuk keluar.

Umum

server {
    listen         80;
    return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}
server {
# Document Root
root /var/www/html;
index index.php index.html index.htm;
server_name .example.com;
client_max_body_size 0;

    listen [::]:443 ssl http2 ipv6only=on;
    listen 443 ssl http2;
        ssl_protocols TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
        ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem;
        ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem;
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
        ssl_session_cache   shared:SSL:20m;
        ssl_session_timeout 20m;
        ssl_ciphers 'TLS13+AESGCM+AES128:EECDH+AES128';


error_page 404 /404.html;
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;

# Block XMLRPC
location = /xmlrpc.php {
    deny all;
}

location / {
    try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php$is_args$args;
}

location ~* \.php$ {
if ($uri !~ "^/uploads/") {
fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php8.2-fpm.sock;
}
include fastcgi_params;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name;
}
location = /favicon.ico {
log_not_found off;
access_log off;
}

location = /robots.txt {
log_not_found off;
access_log off;
allow all;
}

location ~* .(css|gif|svg|ico|woff2|eot|jpeg|webp|jpg|js|png)$ {
expires 1y;
log_not_found off;
}

# Enable Gzip compression.
gzip on;

# Disable Gzip on IE6.
gzip_disable "msie6";

# Allow proxies to cache both compressed and regular version of file.
# Avoids clients that don't support Gzip outputting gibberish.
gzip_vary on;

# Compress data, even when the client connects through a proxy.
gzip_proxied any;

# The level of compression to apply to files. A higher compression level increases
# CPU usage. Level 5 is a happy medium resulting in roughly 75% compression.
gzip_comp_level 5;

# Compress the following MIME types.
gzip_types
 application/atom+xml
 application/javascript
 application/json
 application/ld+json
 application/manifest+json
 application/rss+xml
 application/vnd.geo+json
 application/vnd.ms-fontobject
 application/x-font-ttf
 application/x-web-app-manifest+json
 application/xhtml+xml
 application/xml
 font/opentype
 image/bmp
 image/svg+xml
 image/x-icon
 text/cache-manifest
 text/css
 text/plain
 text/vcard
 text/vnd.rim.location.xloc
 text/vtt
 text/x-component
 text/x-cross-domain-policy;
}

Untuk cache Enabler

server {
    listen         80;
    return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}
server {
# Document Root
root /var/www/html;
index index.php index.html index.htm;
server_name .example.com;
client_max_body_size 0;

    listen [::]:443 ssl http2 ipv6only=on;
    listen 443 ssl http2;
        ssl_protocols TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
        ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem;
        ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem;
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
        ssl_session_cache   shared:SSL:20m;
        ssl_session_timeout 20m;
        ssl_ciphers 'TLS13+AESGCM+AES128:EECDH+AES128';


error_page 404 /404.html;
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;


# Block XMLRPC
location = /xmlrpc.php {
    deny all;
}


# Rules for Cache Enabler Plugin - Static File Serving

    set $cache_uri $request_uri;

    # bypass cache if POST requests or URLs with a query string
    if ($request_method = POST) {
    set $cache_uri 'nullcache';
    }

    if ($query_string != '') {
    set $cache_uri 'nullcache';
    }

    # bypass cache if URLs containing the following strings
    if ($request_uri ~* '(/wp-admin/|/xmlrpc.php|/wp-(app|cron|login|register|mail).php|wp-.*.php|/feed/|index.php|wp-comments-popup.php|wp-links-opml.php|wp-locations.php|sitemap(index)?.xml|[a-z0-9-]+-sitemap([0-9]+)?.xml)') {
    set $cache_uri 'nullcache';
    }

    # bypass cache if cookies contain the following strings
    if ($http_cookie ~* '(wp-postpass|wordpress_logged_in|comment_author)_') {
    set $cache_uri 'nullcache';
    }

    # custom installation subdirectory
    set $custom_subdir '';

    # default HTML file
    set $cache_enabler_uri '${custom_subdir}/wp-content/cache/cache-enabler/${http_host}${cache_uri}${scheme}-index.html';

    # WebP HTML file
    if ($http_accept ~* 'image/webp') {
    set $cache_enabler_uri '${custom_subdir}/wp-content/cache/cache-enabler/${http_host}${cache_uri}${scheme}-index-webp.html';
    }

    location / {
    gzip_static on; # this directive is not required but recommended
    try_files $cache_enabler_uri $uri $uri/ $custom_subdir/index.php?$args;
    }

location ~* \.php$ {
if ($uri !~ "^/uploads/") {
fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php8.2-fpm.sock;
}
include fastcgi_params;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name;
}
location = /favicon.ico {
log_not_found off;
access_log off;
}

location = /robots.txt {
log_not_found off;
access_log off;
allow all;
}

location ~* .(css|gif|svg|ico|jpeg|webp|woff2|eot|jpg|js|png)$ {
expires 1y;
log_not_found off;
}

# Enable Gzip compression.
gzip on;

# Disable Gzip on IE6.
gzip_disable "msie6";

# Allow proxies to cache both compressed and regular version of file.
# Avoids clients that don't support Gzip outputting gibberish.
gzip_vary on;

# Compress data, even when the client connects through a proxy.
gzip_proxied any;

# The level of compression to apply to files. A higher compression level increases
# CPU usage. Level 5 is a happy medium resulting in roughly 75% compression.
gzip_comp_level 5;

# Compress the following MIME types.
gzip_types
 application/atom+xml
 application/javascript
 application/json
 application/ld+json
 application/manifest+json
 application/rss+xml
 application/vnd.geo+json
 application/vnd.ms-fontobject
 application/x-font-ttf
 application/x-web-app-manifest+json
 application/xhtml+xml
 application/xml
 font/opentype
 image/bmp
 image/svg+xml
 image/x-icon
 text/cache-manifest
 text/css
 text/plain
 text/vcard
 text/vnd.rim.location.xloc
 text/vtt
 text/x-component
 text/x-cross-domain-policy;
}
  • Anda perlu menginstal plugin Cache Enabler untuk menikmati manfaat cache.

FastCGI

Jika Anda ingin menggunakan FastCGI Cache maka implementasikan Server Block di bawah ini sebagai gantinya.

# NGINX Cache path
fastcgi_cache_path /var/run/nginx-cache levels=1:2 keys_zone=WORDPRESS:100m inactive=6h;
fastcgi_cache_key "$scheme$request_method$host$request_uri";
fastcgi_cache_use_stale error timeout invalid_header http_500;
fastcgi_ignore_headers Cache-Control Expires Set-Cookie;

server {
    listen         80;
    return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}
server {
root /var/www/html;
index index.php index.html index.htm;
server_name .example.com;
client_max_body_size 0;

    listen [::]:443 ssl http2 ipv6only=on;
    listen 443 ssl http2;
        ssl_protocols TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
        ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem;
        ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem;
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
        ssl_session_cache   shared:SSL:20m;
        ssl_session_timeout 20m;
        ssl_ciphers 'TLS13+AESGCM+AES128:EECDH+AES128';

error_page 404 /404.html;
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;


set $skip_cache 0;
    if ($request_method = POST) {set $skip_cache 1;}
    if ($request_uri ~* "/wp-admin/|/xmlrpc.php|/wp-.*.php|index.php|sitemap(_index)?.xml") {set $skip_cache 1;}
    if ($http_cookie ~* "comment_author|wordpress_[a-f0-9]+|wp-postpass|wordpress_no_cache|wordpress_logged_in") {set $skip_cache 1;}
    if ($query_string = "unapproved*") {set $skip_cache 1;}
    if ($cookie_woocommerce_items_in_cart = "1" ){ set $skip_cache 1;}
    if ($request_uri ~* "/(cart|checkout|my-account)/*$") {set $skip_cache 1;}

# Block XMLRPC
location = /xmlrpc.php {
    deny all;
}

location / {
try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php$is_args$args;
}

location ~* \.php$ {

 if ($uri !~ "^/uploads/") {
        fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php8.2-fpm.sock;
        }

        try_files                       $uri =404;
        include                         /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params;
        fastcgi_param                   SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        fastcgi_pass                    unix:/run/php/php8.2-fpm.sock;
        fastcgi_index                   index.php;
                fastcgi_cache_bypass $skip_cache;
                fastcgi_no_cache $skip_cache;
                fastcgi_cache WORDPRESS;
                fastcgi_cache_valid 200 30d;
                fastcgi_cache_valid 301 302 303 307 308 404 410 451 1m;
                add_header X-Cache $upstream_cache_status;

}

location = /favicon.ico {
log_not_found off;
access_log off;
}

location = /robots.txt {
log_not_found off;
access_log off;
allow all;
}

location ~* .(css|gif|ico|svg|webp|woff2|eot|jpeg|jpg|js|png)$ {
expires 1y;
log_not_found off;
}

# Enable Gzip compression.
gzip on;

# Disable Gzip on IE6.
gzip_disable "msie6";

# Allow proxies to cache both compressed and regular version of file.
# Avoids clients that don't support Gzip outputting gibberish.
gzip_vary on;

# Compress data, even when the client connects through a proxy.
gzip_proxied any;

# The level of compression to apply to files. A higher compression level increases
# CPU usage. Level 5 is a happy medium resulting in roughly 75% compression.
gzip_comp_level 5;

# Compress the following MIME types.
gzip_types
 application/atom+xml
 application/javascript
 application/json
 application/ld+json
 application/manifest+json
 application/rss+xml
 application/vnd.geo+json
 application/vnd.ms-fontobject
 application/x-font-ttf
 application/x-web-app-manifest+json
 application/xhtml+xml
 application/xml
 font/opentype
 image/bmp
 image/svg+xml
 image/x-icon
 text/cache-manifest
 text/css
 text/plain
 text/vcard
 text/vnd.rim.location.xloc
 text/vtt
 text/x-component
 text/x-cross-domain-policy;
}

To save, press CTRL+O and Enter key. Then, exit nano editor using command CTRL+X.

Dalam kasus FastCGI, Anda perlu menggunakan plugin NGINX Helper. Plugin ini juga berfungsi dengan URL yang dikodekan Hindi. Perlu diingat, plugin ini tidak akan mendukung AMP. Saya pribadi tidak menggunakan AMP. (Direkomendasikan)

Sebagai alternatif, cache NGINX berfungsi untuk membersihkan URL AMP tetapi tidak mendukung URL yang dikodekan Hindi. Dalam pengaturan, Anda harus menyimpan jalur cache /var/run/nginx-cache/

Perhatian!

  • Sebagai contoh, Jika Anda menggunakan tema Koran dan menyajikan tema Mobile terpisah, silakan tetap tanpa metode FastCGI dan gunakan plugin WP Rocket karena dapat melayani cache seluler terpisah di luar kotak.

7. Membuat Tautan simbolis antara dua direktori

Jika Anda melewatkan langkah ini, Anda mungkin mendapatkan ERR_CONNECTION_REFUSED

Untuk mengaktifkan blok server, buat tautan simbolik file Blok Server NGINX Anda dari direktori /etc/nginx/sites-available/ ke /etc/nginx/sites-enabled

Sebelum menjalankan perintah di bawah ini, harap ganti example.com ke domain sendiri.

ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/

Konfigurasi pengujian

nginx -t

Mulai ulang dan perbarui

service nginx restart && service php8.2-fpm restart && service mysql restart && apt-get update && apt upgrade -y

8. Instal WordPress

Unduh file WordPress di direktori /var/www/html dan atur izinnya.

cd /var/www/html && wget https://id.wordpress.org/latest-id_ID.tar.gz && tar -xvzf latest-id_ID.tar.gz && mv -v wordpress/* /var/www/html && rm -rf latest-id_ID.tar.gz wordpress && chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/html && sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www/html

Untuk memperbarui izin di masa mendatang, gunakan perintah di bawah ini

chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/ && sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www

9. Memperbarui DNS

Jika Anda meng-hosting WordPress secara lokal, ingin mem-bypass proxy atau ingin melakukan migrasi zero downtime, langkah ini berguna. Saya biasanya lebih suka jika area Dev WordPress statis. 😉

  • Ada dua cara untuk mengarahkan DNS. Jika Anda memigrasikan situs ke Vultr dan ingin mengujinya terlebih dahulu secara lokal, maka edit file host Anda dan arahkan ke sana.

Untuk Windows

  • Pergi ke properti ‪C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts
  • Ubah izin “Keamanan” menjadi kontrol penuh untuk Nama Pengguna Anda saat ini
  • Sekarang Anda dapat dengan bebas mengedit file host di bawah pengguna Sistem Anda dan menyimpannya.
# For same machine you can have localhost address else public IP
127.0.0.1 example.com
127.0.0.1 www.example.com

Beginilah seharusnya tampilannya.

Untuk Mac atau Linux

Anda dapat mengedit file host menggunakan perintah di bawah ini

sudo nano /etc/hosts

Memperbarui DNS dengan Cloudflare

  • Jika semuanya sempurna dan Anda ingin membuat situs Anda hidup, Login ke Cloudflare DNS dan perbarui IP baru
A@IPV4 address
AAAA@IPV6 address
CNAMEwwwexample.com

di mana @ menunjukkan naked domain example.com

9. Kunjungi nama domain Anda untuk menyiapkan WordPress

Jika Anda ingin menyimpan domain versi non-www untuk WordPress Anda maka kunjungi versi non-www selain www.

https://example.com
  • Berikan kredensial login Basis Data untuk memulai Penyiapan WordPress
  • Jalankan Instalasi
  • Isi detail dasar Situs baru Anda dan Instal WordPress.
  • Masuk ke WordPress
  • Jika Anda menggunakan blok server FastCGI maka hal pertama yang harus Anda lakukan adalah menginstal plugin NGINX Cache dan mengkonfigurasi /var/www/cache sebagai jalur cache.

Hal-hal lain yang diperlukan

Gunakan Layanan plugin SMTP untuk mengirim email keluar WordPress jika tidak, Anda tidak akan dapat menerima tautan reset kata sandi, formulir kontak 7 pesan.

Akhirnya, instalasi WordPress telah selesai. Selalu simpan cadangan.

Saya sangat menghargai waktu berharga Anda dalam membaca artikel ini. Sampai jumpa di tutorial berikutnya!

Ingin lebih?
Bayangkan mendapatkan Tutorial setiap hari! SANGAT LUAR BIASA. Berlangganan sekarang.

Tinggalkan komentar

69 pemikiran pada “Instal WordPress dengan Ubuntu 22.04, NGINX, MariaDB dan PHP 8.2”

  1. Thanks a lot Gulshan. You save my breath

    I search everywhere but not find any good article

    You explained very well along with security concern

    well done

    Balas
  2. Thank you for your tutorial, its the first one that actually showed me the wordpress setup page.

    When I went to upload a plugin I received this message. “The uploaded file exceeds the upload_max_filesize directive in php.ini”

    How do I increase the max filesize?

    Balas
    • Add below cron job

      crontab -e

      Add below command and save.

      15 3 * * 7 certbot renew --post-hook "service nginx restart"

      Balas
  3. Hello Gulshan Bro, First i want to say you that this is very beautiful and required post. I am really appreciating your work. but i have a problem can you please tell me
    i have a droplet with digitalocean ($5/month plan) and i want to host multiple wordpress sites only with nginx(lemp ubuntu 18.04).
    In simple i mean that this tutorial is complete to install a single wordpress and i did it but tell host it in some other sites

    Balas
    • Hey Rohit,

      Assuming, second site is example2.org

      You need to follow steps this way.

      1. create a new directory and add WordPress (Ref: steps 31)

      cd /var/www/
      mkdir example2
      wget https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz
      tar -xvzf latest.tar.gz
      mv -v wordpress/* /var/www/example2
      rm -rf index.nginx-debian.html latest.tar.gz wordpress
      chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/
      sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www

      2. Create a new Server block with root path located to new directory as created in step 1.


      cd /etc/nginx/sites-available/
      nano gulshankumar-org

      server {
      listen 80;
      root /var/www/example2;
      index index.php index.html index.htm;
      server_name example2.org www.example2.org;
      ...

      3. Point your example2.org domain to DNS, then install SSL

      certbot --nginx -d example2.org -d www.example2.org

      4. Create new MySQL database
      sudo mysql -u root -p
      create database example2;
      grant all on example2.* to example2@localhost identified by 'TYPE HERE PASSWORD';
      flush privileges;
      exit;

      5. Proceed to Installation by visiting your site https://example2.org

      Let me know if you have any additional question. You can always visit our forum for quick assistance.

      Thanks & Regards,
      Gulshan

      Balas
      • Hello Gulshan you written a comprehensive guide i highly appreciate your work. Can you help me with an error? Actually i have two websites the first website i have already hosted on Vultr following the above guide.

        But when try to host a another WordPress website iam getting error. I followed the above steps you mentioned in comments. But still not able to fix it. The error is my website not working after hosting another WordPress website.

        If possible please guide me step by step instructions. It will help me alot. Thanks in advance.

        Balas
        • Consider checking log available at /var/log/nginx/ directory. Use nginx -t command to see what mistake causing issue.

          Balas
    • If your WordPress General Settings has www version, server will do automatically. No additional action is required. In case you started WordPress installation at non-www version, then you need to migrate by changing at Database level.

      Balas
  4. Hey Gulshan,
    In the 7th step while texting ngnix I got
    nginx: [emerg] open() “/etc/nginx/sites-enabled/example.com” failed (2: No such file or directory) in /etc/nginx/nginx.conf:62
    nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test failed

    This error. How I can solve it? also what the error.

    Balas
    • Please delete your existing server block and create again at sites-available and symlink at sites-enabled directory. The step 6 and 7 cover that clearly. Consider following patiently without any error. If you still face any problem, do let me know. Thanks for taking to leave your valuable comment.

      Balas
  5. How to check if fastcgi cache is working or not? while running sudo curl -I https://example.com it is not showing x-cache parameter

    Balas
  6. Hi Gulshan, I am also receiving the test failed error on step 7. I have tried several times now on different setup and still stuck here. Please could you help?

    Balas
    • Please carefully read the post and then copy-paste code in Terminal. Sometime you need to replace with your own domain. Doing mistake can return error. Else, no wise. I use this guide everyday for myself. I am not aware about any problem.

      In case of trouble
      1. Run test using nginx -t
      2. Check logs to get proper hint tail -f /var/log/nginx/error.log

      3. Delete existing or earlier created virtualhost
      rm /etc/nginx/sites-available/default && rm /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default
      4. Make sure to replace example.com at all places, a) when you create conf file, its naming. b) when you add conf file and c) when you create symlink, check your command its conf file name must match with first process.

      I feel in most cases, chances are you did not replaced server_name .example.com; to own domain, or you did not obtained SSL. All steps are written in serial order as it should be.

      Balas
  7. This article is like Life-Saver for one of my website. I was about to move from Google Cloud to Digital Ocean because the trial was expired and I also wanted to use DigitaOcean because it is in-expensive yet powerful and gives great experience.

    Previously, I used webinoly stack which was straightforward for installing WordPress but later on I got to know from Gulshan that there are so many issues with that stack so, this time I was going to do it manually. I checked the official guide by Digital ocean but end up with many confusion and issues. Then, I fortunately asked Gulshan for help and he recommended this article for me.

    I installed WordPress easily and very fast even fast that Webinoly stack. Thanks a lot Gulshan for writing this amazing article. Hats off to you bro!!🎩

    Balas
  8. I alwyas keep this guide bookmarket to my web browser! You never know when I would need to setup a new LEMP server ! Thanks Gulshan

    Balas
      • What are the differences if any between doing this method and using the vultr 1 click install? I have also read about centminmod. Is that somrthing u will recommend for having a fast LEMP stack? Tnx

        Balas
  9. The FastCGI server block config throws 404 Errors.

    fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.4-fpm-example.sock;
    should be:
    fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.4-fpm.sock;

    And it is missing config for location /
    This config must be defined:

    location / {
    try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php$is_args$args;
    }

    Balas
  10. Hey bro what is your thoughts on EasyEngine and SlickStack etc or one click app instead to automate? what is your favorite and will you make any tut bro

    Balas
  11. hello gulshanji i wanted to use cloudflare ssl direct from thier website and not thru api with fast cgi then what would the config

    Balas
  12. What do you think about Plesk Panel?
    It is easy to install plesk and create a wordpress site.
    Easy to find trial keys and we can use it unlimited.
    If it expires sites goes on ftp works and only plesk panel does not work but there are too much trial keys
    It has nginx cache.

    Do you recommend why and why not?
    Thanks

    Balas
  13. Can we create multi wordpress sites on different domain in the same machine with this
    method?

    I think only changement is in the FastCGI?

    server {
    root /var/www/aaa.com/wordpress;
    index index.php index.html index.htm;
    server_name .aaa.com;
    client_max_body_size 0;

    server {
    root /var/www/bbb.com/wordpress;
    index index.php index.html index.htm;
    server_name .bbb.com;
    client_max_body_size 0;

    server {
    root /var/www/ccc.com/wordpress;
    index index.php index.html index.htm;
    server_name .ccc.com;
    client_max_body_size 0;

    is this make a problem cache path is the same path for 3 web site? /var/www/cache

    Is this method works?
    1 machine 3 different domain and wordpress?

    Thanks

    Balas
  14. I have 2 questions

    1) What if i have 2 domains on different cloudflare accounts?

    Create a cloudflare.ini file inside /root/.secrets/ directory.
    mkdir -p /root/.secrets/ && cd /root/.secrets/ && nano cloudflare.ini
    Add below code and save using CTRL+O and exit using CTRL+X
    dns_cloudflare_email = “your-cloudflare-email@example.com”
    dns_cloudflare_api_key = “XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX”

    /root/.secrets/1domaincloudfare.ini
    /root/.secrets/2domaincloudfare.ini

    certbot certonly –dns-cloudflare –dns-cloudflare-credentials 1domaincloudfare.ini -d example.com,*.1domain.com –preferred-challenges dns-01
    certbot certonly –dns-cloudflare –dns-cloudflare-credentials 2domaincloudfare.ini -d example.com,*.2domain.com –preferred-challenges dns-01

    Do this work?

    2) If we have 2 domains in the same account on cloudflare can we use 1 cloudflare.ini

    certbot certonly –dns-cloudflare –dns-cloudflare-credentials /root/.secrets/cloudflare.ini -d 1domain.com,*.example.com –preferred-challenges dns-01
    certbot certonly –dns-cloudflare –dns-cloudflare-credentials /root/.secrets/cloudflare.ini -d 2domain.com,*.example.com –preferred-challenges
    dns-01

    3) If we dont use cloudflare what will our ns for domain?
    CLoud VPNs IP?

    ns1= 68.28.65.84
    ns2= 68.28.65.84

    Is this right?

    thanks for your replies

    Balas
  15. which is the best & compatible server side cache plugin If I use FastCGI server block code along with Nginx Cache plugin..

    W3 Total Cache or WP Rocket

    Balas
  16. I finally installed wordpress with this guide. But I see only www version but not the non-www version. Is there any changes that I need to do.

    Redirects to www version even If I enter non-www version.

    Balas
    • You need to point DNS records for both hostnames. Second, make sure dot is not missing from the beginning of example.com in this code – server_name .example.com; in the NGINX connfig at step 6. Another thing, Redirect from www to non-www or vice-versa (as neccessary) is taken care automatically from WordPress. You do not need to put any extra code for it.

      Balas
  17. For Nginx cache helper (I take this info from offical site
    There’s a ‘purge all’ button? Does it purge the whole site?
    Yes, it does. It physically empties the cache directory. It is set by default to /var/run/nginx-cache/.

    So the default is /var/run/nginx-cache/
    can we change fastcgi_cache_path /var/www/cache to /var/run/nginx-cache/ ?

    Thanks

    Balas
    • Jika direktori cache Anda berbeda, Anda dapat menimpa ini di wp-config.php Anda dengan menambahkan.

      define('RT_WP_NGINX_HELPER_CACHE_PATH','/var/www/nginx-cache/')

      Balas
  18. location ~* .(css|gif|ico|svg|jpeg|jpg|js|png)$ {
    expires 1y;
    log_not_found off;
    }

    is this code for page caching?
    I use cloudflare so it has page cache too.
    If i use that can i remove it from codes?
    Can you please explain what is this code for?

    Thanks

    Balas
    • That code is for setting up 1 year browser caching for static files. You may use Cloudflare Page caching as normally you do. There shouldn’t be any problem.

      Balas
  19. Can you explain me what is the difference between inactive and fastcgi_cache_valid values? Can you explain them please? Thanks

    Balas
  20. Exactly followed the same steps, but at the end i am getting 502 bad gateway. I built some sites with the same steps before, however i don’t know what changed now.

    Balas
  21. Successfully install wordpres for a single site and do the same i mean for another domain on the same instance but after creating server blocks get “nginx: (emerg) duplicate listen options for (::):443 in /etc/nginx/sites-enabled” on nginx -t

    How Can i solve this?

    Balas