Ubuntu 22.04, NGINX, MariaDB ve PHP 8.2 ile WordPress Kurulumu

Yeni başlayanlar için kolay kelimelerle adım adım nasıl yapılır eğitimi

Bu makalede, NGINX, MariaDB ve PHP 8.2 kullanarak bir Ubuntu 22.04 sunucusuna WordPress’i manuel olarak kurma sürecini öğreneceksiniz. Bu yığın, WordPress web sitenizi inanılmaz bir hızla çalıştırmak için güçlü ve verimli bir platform sağlayacaktır.

Bu 3 adımı izleyin ve videoyu izleyin. Yardıma ihtiyacınız var? benimle iletişime geçin. 😊

  1. Kurulum Cloudflare DNS
  2. Almak Ubuntu Server
  3. Deploying LEMP Stack

Şimdi başlamadan önce, işte size kısa bir ipucu. Kullanım Search and Replace Extension yığın içinchange example.com bu web sayfasındaki kendi alanınıza.

Google Chrome kullanıcıları için zaman kazandıran ipucu.
search replace

Parça A: Sakla Cloudflare Nameservers aktif

Biz kullanacağız Cloudflare DNS almak için Let’s Encrypt Wildcard SSL certificate. Sıfır kesinti süreli geçişin keyfini çıkarmak için önce bu adımı tamamlayın.

Kontrol et Current Nameservers

Parça B: Get a Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS Server ready

Ubuntu
Ubuntu logo

1. Kaydolun Vultr to 100 $ Ücretsiz kredi kazanın (30 gün boyunca geçerlidir)

Pek çok Bulut sunucu şirketini denemiş biri olarak, deneyimlerim Vultr ile yanlış gidemeyeceğinizi söylüyor. Bu adamlar destek ve hizmetler söz konusu olduğunda samimi ve ilgili.

vultr

⚡ Performans

  • NVME / SSD
  • 3.7 GHz CPU
  • Up to 5Gbps Network Speed
  • Datacenter in America, Europe, Asia, Austraillia
  • IPV6 ready

💡 Özellikler

  • Beginner-Friendly Dashboard
  • One-click to Snapshot
  • Automtatic Backup (Paid)
  • Free Cloud Firewall
  • DDoS protection (Paid)
  • 100% KVM Virtualization

⚙ Destek

  • PayPal/Card
  • 24/7 Ticket Support
  • Documentation

2. Yeni bir VPS Server

Başlamak için artı düğmesine tıklamanız yeterlidir

Deploy New Server

3. Seçin Server type

Choose Server

Ardından, şunları seçmeniz gerekir CPU & Storage Technology, tercih edebilirsiniz “AMD High Performance”.

CPU Technology

4. Bir seçim yapın Server Location

Hedef kitlenize yakın bir sunucu konumu seçin.

vultr server region 1

5. Seçiniz Ubuntu 22.04 x64 OS

Cloud Operating System

Uzun vadeli destek (LTS), bilgisayar yazılımının kararlı bir sürümünün standart sürümden daha uzun bir süre boyunca muhafaza edildiği bir ürün yaşam döngüsü yönetim politikasıdır.

ubuntu releases 2

6. Bir seçim yapın Server Size

server size

6 $ / ay planı yeni bir blog için harika bir başlangıç noktası olacaktır. İhtiyaca göre istediğiniz zaman yükseltebilirsiniz.

İpucu: Eğer geçiş yapıyorsanız, Toplam kurulum boyutu Site health info.

Site health info

7. Etkinleştir IPV6, Backup

vultr enable backup ipv6

8. Ekle SSH key

Bu, aşağıdakiler için önerilen, isteğe bağlı bir adımdır geli̇şti̇ri̇lmi̇ş güvenli̇k.

Add SSH key
  • Tıklayınız Add New düğmesi ile yeni bir SSH key göndermek için 🔒Public key.
  • İşletim sisteminize göre aşağıdaki yöntemi kullanarak Anahtarları Oluşturun.
win os
  • İndir PuTTy application.
  • Aramak için PuTTygen in the Start menu
  • Tıklayınız Generate button and hover mouse pointer
  • Copy Public key and provide to Vultr
  • Enter key passphrase
  • Save 🔑Private Key at the safest location.
  • Bu, SSH veya SFTP’ye giriş için kullanılabilir.
linux 2
  • Run: ssh-keygen -t rsa. For a more secure 4096-bit key, run: ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096
  • Anahtarı nereye kaydetmek istediğiniz sorulduğunda enter tuşuna basın (bu varsayılan konumu kullanacaktır).
  • Enter a passphrase for your key.
  • Run cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub – this will give you the key in the proper format to paste into the control panel.
  • Yedeklediğinizden emin olun ~/.ssh/id_rsa file. Kaybolması halinde geri getirilemez.

Seçiminizi yapın SSH key

Bu adımları izleyerek açık anahtarınızı yeni Örneğinize ekleyebilirsiniz. Ardından, hem Düz Metin parolasını hem de SSH anahtarını kullanarak SSH’ye giriş yapabileceksiniz.

select SSH public key

9. Link Web Firewall rule to Server Instance

Firewall
  1. Yönet’e tıklayın ve yeni bir Firewall Group.
  2. Allow TCP port 22 for SSH. 80 for HTTP and 443 HTTPS for IPV4 and IPV6 rules both.
  3. Bunu yaptıktan sonra Firewall group to your Instance.
firewall status
Accept TCP connection from 22, 80, 443 only
Link Firewall Group
Link firewall rule to new instance

10. Enter Hostname and label tıklayın Deploy Now

server hostname label

Şimdi, ilerleme bölümünde yükleme işlemini göreceksiniz

Instance Installing

11. Yeni’ye git Instance page

Copy IP address, username and password. Senin default port is 22.

new instance info page

12. Devre dışı bırak Password Login

Güvenlik nedeniyle, parola kimlik doğrulamasının devre dışı bırakılması ve yalnızca anahtar tabanlı kimlik doğrulamasına izin verilmesi önerilir.

  1. Edit the configuration file nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config
  2. Find (CTRL + W) and search PasswordAuthentication
  3. Change value from yes to no
  4. To save type, CTRL + O
  5. Restart the SSH service using command sudo service ssh restart
disable password auth
Parola Kimlik Doğrulamasını Devre Dışı Bırak

Bir sonraki seferden itibaren, SSH’yi yalnızca videoda gösterildiği gibi anahtar aracılığıyla kullanabilirsiniz.

İçin Linux or Mac, use Terminal with command like this

ssh root@192.168.1.1 -p 22 -i id_rsa

Adım 13. Devre dışı bırak UFW

VULTR’de yeni bir örnek dağıttığınızda, SSH bağlantı noktası 22 hariç tüm bağlantı noktalarını engelleyen UFW (Karmaşık Olmayan Güvenlik Duvarı) etkinleştirilmiş olarak gelir. Bu geri dönebilir ERR_CONNECTION_REFUSED Error in the browser. Bunu düzeltmek için şunları tutmanızı öneririm UFW disabled.

ufw disable

Temel şeyler için bu kadar açıklama yeterli. Şimdi, WordPress’i LEMP yığını üzerinde dağıtmak için orijinal süreci hızlandıracağım.

Parça C. Deploy WordPress üzerinde LEMP Stack

1. Update repositories

Aşağıdaki komutu yazın ve enter tuşuna basın

sudo -s
apt update && apt upgrade -y && apt dist-upgrade && apt autoclean && apt autoremove -y && reboot

veya

wget -qO update https://dl.gulshankumar.net/update && chmod +x update

Bir dahaki sefere, güncellemek için her zaman aşağıdaki kısayol komutunu kullanın.

./update

2. Kurulum MariaDB güvenlik ile

Tekrar giriş yapın ve aşağıdaki komutu girin

sudo apt install mariadb-server -y && sudo mysql_secure_installation

Aşağıdaki soruları cevaplayın

  • Enter current password for root (enter for none): Enter tuşuna basın
  • Switch to unix_socket authentication [Y/n]: n yazın ve Enter tuşuna basın.
  • Set root password? [Y/n]: Enter tuşuna basın.
  • New password: Dashlane Password Generator’dan güçlü bir parola kopyalayın. SSH konsoluna bir parola yapıştırmak için sağ tıklayın ve Enter tuşuna basın. Parola ekranda görünmeyecektir.
  • Re-enter new password: Sağ tıklayın ve Enter tuşuna tekrar basın.

Başarılı şifre ayarından sonra, şunları göreceksiniz

Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
... Success!

Ayrıca, aşağıdaki soruları da yanıtlamanız gerekmektedir.

  • Remove anonymous users? [Y/n]: Y tuşuna basın ve girin
  • Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n]: Y tuşuna basın ve girin
  • Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n]: Y tuşuna basın ve girin
  • Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n]: Y tuşuna basın ve girin

3. Yeni bir Database için WordPress

Giriş yapmak için MySQL, press enter key şifre sorduğunda.

mysql -u root -p

Yeni bir Database, and Grant Privileges ile kullanıcısını kullanmak için password. İşte burası WordPress store all post, pages, themes, plugin, etc information.

create database wordpress;
grant all on wordpress.* to gulshan@localhost identified by '5pY8CKJxDRJEGQNkX7';
flush privileges;
exit;

Where your …
database is wordpress
username is gulshan
password is 5pY8CKJxDRJEGQNkX7

İpucu: Benzersiz oturum açma kimlik bilgilerini kullanmayı düşünün

4. Install PHP 8.2, NGINX and set Permission

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php -y && apt update && apt install php8.2-fpm php8.2-common php8.2-mysql php8.2-xml php8.2-xmlrpc php8.2-curl php8.2-gd php8.2-imagick php8.2-cli php8.2-dev php8.2-imap php8.2-mbstring php8.2-soap php8.2-zip php8.2-bcmath -y && sed -i 's/;cgi.fix_pathinfo=1/cgi.fix_pathinfo=0/g' /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini && service php8.2-fpm restart && apt install nginx -y && chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/ && chmod -R 755 /var/www

Tweak PHP Configuration

Çoğu fancy theme and plugin requires high-end PHP configuration to run. Bu nedenle, bu değişiklikleri yapmalıyız.

sed -i 's/memory_limit = 128M/memory_limit = 512M/g' /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i 's/post_max_size = 8M/post_max_size = 128M/g' /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i 's/max_file_uploads = 20/max_file_uploads = 30/g' /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i 's/max_execution_time = 30/max_execution_time = 900/g' /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i 's/max_input_time = 60/max_input_time = 3000/g' /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini
sed -i 's/upload_max_filesize = 2M/upload_max_filesize = 128M/g' /etc/php/8.2/fpm/php.ini
service php8.2-fpm restart

5. Kurulum Wildcard Let’s Encrypt SSL Certificate

Oluşturmak cloudflare.ini file inside /root/.secrets/ directory.

mkdir -p /root/.secrets/ && cd /root/.secrets/ && nano cloudflare.ini

Aşağıdaki kodu ekleyin ve kullanarak kaydedin CTRL+O ve kullanarak çıkın CTRL+X

dns_cloudflare_email = "your-cloudflare-email@example.com"
dns_cloudflare_api_key = "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX"

Cloudflare e-postanızı bulun ve Global API key at “My Profile” > API Tokens > Global API Key

chmod 0400 /root/.secrets/cloudflare.ini

Kurulum Certbot ve DNS Authenticator according to OS and HTTP web server

snap install --beta --classic certbot
snap set certbot trust-plugin-with-root=ok
snap install --beta certbot-dns-cloudflare
snap connect certbot:plugin certbot-dns-cloudflare

Get Wildcard SSL Certificate

certbot certonly --dns-cloudflare --dns-cloudflare-credentials /root/.secrets/cloudflare.ini -d example.com,*.example.com --preferred-challenges dns-01

Set Automatic Renewal using Cron Job

  • Type crontab -e
  • Type 1 for nano editor
  • Enter below command and save
0 0 * * *  /etc/init.d/nginx reload >/dev/null 2>&1

Test renewal

certbot renew --dry-run

6. Yapılandırma Nginx Server Block

Bu, alan adınızı yapılandırmanız gereken yerde, NGINX’in HTTP isteklerinizi nasıl ele alması gerektiği konusunda önemlidir.

Delete default server blocks.

rm /etc/nginx/sites-available/default && rm /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default

Create a new server block

cd /etc/nginx/sites-available/
nano example.com
  1. Replace example.com with own domain
  2. Aşağıdaki kodu girin ve Press ctrl+o to save and ctrl+x to exit.

General

server {
    listen         80;
    return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}
server {
# Document Root
root /var/www/html;
index index.php index.html index.htm;
server_name .example.com;
client_max_body_size 0;

    listen [::]:443 ssl http2 ipv6only=on;
    listen 443 ssl http2;
        ssl_protocols TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
        ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem;
        ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem;
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
        ssl_session_cache   shared:SSL:20m;
        ssl_session_timeout 20m;
        ssl_ciphers 'TLS13+AESGCM+AES128:EECDH+AES128';


error_page 404 /404.html;
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;

# Block XMLRPC
location = /xmlrpc.php {
    deny all;
}

location / {
    try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php$is_args$args;
}

location ~* \.php$ {
if ($uri !~ "^/uploads/") {
fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php8.2-fpm.sock;
}
include fastcgi_params;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name;
}
location = /favicon.ico {
log_not_found off;
access_log off;
}

location = /robots.txt {
log_not_found off;
access_log off;
allow all;
}

location ~* .(css|gif|svg|ico|woff2|eot|jpeg|webp|jpg|js|png)$ {
expires 1y;
log_not_found off;
}

# Enable Gzip compression.
gzip on;

# Disable Gzip on IE6.
gzip_disable "msie6";

# Allow proxies to cache both compressed and regular version of file.
# Avoids clients that don't support Gzip outputting gibberish.
gzip_vary on;

# Compress data, even when the client connects through a proxy.
gzip_proxied any;

# The level of compression to apply to files. A higher compression level increases
# CPU usage. Level 5 is a happy medium resulting in roughly 75% compression.
gzip_comp_level 5;

# Compress the following MIME types.
gzip_types
 application/atom+xml
 application/javascript
 application/json
 application/ld+json
 application/manifest+json
 application/rss+xml
 application/vnd.geo+json
 application/vnd.ms-fontobject
 application/x-font-ttf
 application/x-web-app-manifest+json
 application/xhtml+xml
 application/xml
 font/opentype
 image/bmp
 image/svg+xml
 image/x-icon
 text/cache-manifest
 text/css
 text/plain
 text/vcard
 text/vnd.rim.location.xloc
 text/vtt
 text/x-component
 text/x-cross-domain-policy;
}

For cache Enabler

server {
    listen         80;
    return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}
server {
# Document Root
root /var/www/html;
index index.php index.html index.htm;
server_name .example.com;
client_max_body_size 0;

    listen [::]:443 ssl http2 ipv6only=on;
    listen 443 ssl http2;
        ssl_protocols TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
        ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem;
        ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem;
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
        ssl_session_cache   shared:SSL:20m;
        ssl_session_timeout 20m;
        ssl_ciphers 'TLS13+AESGCM+AES128:EECDH+AES128';


error_page 404 /404.html;
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;


# Block XMLRPC
location = /xmlrpc.php {
    deny all;
}


# Rules for Cache Enabler Plugin - Static File Serving

    set $cache_uri $request_uri;

    # bypass cache if POST requests or URLs with a query string
    if ($request_method = POST) {
    set $cache_uri 'nullcache';
    }

    if ($query_string != '') {
    set $cache_uri 'nullcache';
    }

    # bypass cache if URLs containing the following strings
    if ($request_uri ~* '(/wp-admin/|/xmlrpc.php|/wp-(app|cron|login|register|mail).php|wp-.*.php|/feed/|index.php|wp-comments-popup.php|wp-links-opml.php|wp-locations.php|sitemap(index)?.xml|[a-z0-9-]+-sitemap([0-9]+)?.xml)') {
    set $cache_uri 'nullcache';
    }

    # bypass cache if cookies contain the following strings
    if ($http_cookie ~* '(wp-postpass|wordpress_logged_in|comment_author)_') {
    set $cache_uri 'nullcache';
    }

    # custom installation subdirectory
    set $custom_subdir '';

    # default HTML file
    set $cache_enabler_uri '${custom_subdir}/wp-content/cache/cache-enabler/${http_host}${cache_uri}${scheme}-index.html';

    # WebP HTML file
    if ($http_accept ~* 'image/webp') {
    set $cache_enabler_uri '${custom_subdir}/wp-content/cache/cache-enabler/${http_host}${cache_uri}${scheme}-index-webp.html';
    }

    location / {
    gzip_static on; # this directive is not required but recommended
    try_files $cache_enabler_uri $uri $uri/ $custom_subdir/index.php?$args;
    }

location ~* \.php$ {
if ($uri !~ "^/uploads/") {
fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php8.2-fpm.sock;
}
include fastcgi_params;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $fastcgi_script_name;
}
location = /favicon.ico {
log_not_found off;
access_log off;
}

location = /robots.txt {
log_not_found off;
access_log off;
allow all;
}

location ~* .(css|gif|svg|ico|jpeg|webp|woff2|eot|jpg|js|png)$ {
expires 1y;
log_not_found off;
}

# Enable Gzip compression.
gzip on;

# Disable Gzip on IE6.
gzip_disable "msie6";

# Allow proxies to cache both compressed and regular version of file.
# Avoids clients that don't support Gzip outputting gibberish.
gzip_vary on;

# Compress data, even when the client connects through a proxy.
gzip_proxied any;

# The level of compression to apply to files. A higher compression level increases
# CPU usage. Level 5 is a happy medium resulting in roughly 75% compression.
gzip_comp_level 5;

# Compress the following MIME types.
gzip_types
 application/atom+xml
 application/javascript
 application/json
 application/ld+json
 application/manifest+json
 application/rss+xml
 application/vnd.geo+json
 application/vnd.ms-fontobject
 application/x-font-ttf
 application/x-web-app-manifest+json
 application/xhtml+xml
 application/xml
 font/opentype
 image/bmp
 image/svg+xml
 image/x-icon
 text/cache-manifest
 text/css
 text/plain
 text/vcard
 text/vnd.rim.location.xloc
 text/vtt
 text/x-component
 text/x-cross-domain-policy;
}
  • Önbellek avantajından yararlanmak için Cache Enabler eklentisini yüklemeniz gerekir.

FastCGI

FastCGI Cache kullanmak istiyorsanız, bunun yerine aşağıdaki Sunucu Bloğunu uygulayın.

# NGINX Cache path
fastcgi_cache_path /var/run/nginx-cache levels=1:2 keys_zone=WORDPRESS:100m inactive=6h;
fastcgi_cache_key "$scheme$request_method$host$request_uri";
fastcgi_cache_use_stale error timeout invalid_header http_500;
fastcgi_ignore_headers Cache-Control Expires Set-Cookie;

server {
    listen         80;
    return 301 https://$host$request_uri;
}
server {
root /var/www/html;
index index.php index.html index.htm;
server_name .example.com;
client_max_body_size 0;

    listen [::]:443 ssl http2 ipv6only=on;
    listen 443 ssl http2;
        ssl_protocols TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
        ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem;
        ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem;
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
        ssl_session_cache   shared:SSL:20m;
        ssl_session_timeout 20m;
        ssl_ciphers 'TLS13+AESGCM+AES128:EECDH+AES128';

error_page 404 /404.html;
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;


set $skip_cache 0;
    if ($request_method = POST) {set $skip_cache 1;}
    if ($request_uri ~* "/wp-admin/|/xmlrpc.php|/wp-.*.php|index.php|sitemap(_index)?.xml") {set $skip_cache 1;}
    if ($http_cookie ~* "comment_author|wordpress_[a-f0-9]+|wp-postpass|wordpress_no_cache|wordpress_logged_in") {set $skip_cache 1;}
    if ($query_string = "unapproved*") {set $skip_cache 1;}
    if ($cookie_woocommerce_items_in_cart = "1" ){ set $skip_cache 1;}
    if ($request_uri ~* "/(cart|checkout|my-account)/*$") {set $skip_cache 1;}

# Block XMLRPC
location = /xmlrpc.php {
    deny all;
}

location / {
try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php$is_args$args;
}

location ~* \.php$ {

 if ($uri !~ "^/uploads/") {
        fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php8.2-fpm.sock;
        }

        try_files                       $uri =404;
        include                         /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params;
        fastcgi_param                   SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        fastcgi_pass                    unix:/run/php/php8.2-fpm.sock;
        fastcgi_index                   index.php;
                fastcgi_cache_bypass $skip_cache;
                fastcgi_no_cache $skip_cache;
                fastcgi_cache WORDPRESS;
                fastcgi_cache_valid 200 30d;
                fastcgi_cache_valid 301 302 303 307 308 404 410 451 1m;
                add_header X-Cache $upstream_cache_status;

}

location = /favicon.ico {
log_not_found off;
access_log off;
}

location = /robots.txt {
log_not_found off;
access_log off;
allow all;
}

location ~* .(css|gif|ico|svg|webp|woff2|eot|jpeg|jpg|js|png)$ {
expires 1y;
log_not_found off;
}

# Enable Gzip compression.
gzip on;

# Disable Gzip on IE6.
gzip_disable "msie6";

# Allow proxies to cache both compressed and regular version of file.
# Avoids clients that don't support Gzip outputting gibberish.
gzip_vary on;

# Compress data, even when the client connects through a proxy.
gzip_proxied any;

# The level of compression to apply to files. A higher compression level increases
# CPU usage. Level 5 is a happy medium resulting in roughly 75% compression.
gzip_comp_level 5;

# Compress the following MIME types.
gzip_types
 application/atom+xml
 application/javascript
 application/json
 application/ld+json
 application/manifest+json
 application/rss+xml
 application/vnd.geo+json
 application/vnd.ms-fontobject
 application/x-font-ttf
 application/x-web-app-manifest+json
 application/xhtml+xml
 application/xml
 font/opentype
 image/bmp
 image/svg+xml
 image/x-icon
 text/cache-manifest
 text/css
 text/plain
 text/vcard
 text/vnd.rim.location.xloc
 text/vtt
 text/x-component
 text/x-cross-domain-policy;
}

To save, press CTRL+O and Enter key. Then, exit nano editor using command CTRL+X.

Bu durumda FastCGI, you need to use NGINX Helper plugin. Hintçe kodlanmış URL ile de çalışır. AMP’yi desteklemeyeceğini unutmayın. Ben şahsen AMP kullanmayın. (Tavsiye edilir)

Alternatif olarak, NGINX önbelleği AMP URL’sini temizlemek için çalışır, ancak Hintçe kodlanmış URL’yi desteklemez. Ayarlarda şunları tutmalısınız cache path /var/run/nginx-cache/

Dikkat!

  • Örneğin, Gazete teması kullanıyorsanız ve ayrı bir Mobil tema sunuyorsanız, lütfen FastCGI yöntemini kullanmayın ve bir WP Rocket eklentisi kullanın, çünkü kutudan ayrı mobil önbellek sunabilir.

7. Oluştur Symbolic links between two directories

Bu adımı atlarsanız, aşağıdaki durumlarla karşılaşabilirsiniz ERR_CONNECTION_REFUSED

To activate server block, create a symbolic link of your NGINX Server Block file from directory /etc/nginx/sites-available/ to /etc/nginx/sites-enabled

Aşağıdaki komutu çalıştırmadan önce lütfen example.com to own domain.

ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/

Test configuration

nginx -t

Yeniden başlatın ve güncelleyin

service nginx restart && service php8.2-fpm restart && service mysql restart && apt-get update && apt upgrade -y

8. Install WordPress

WordPress dosyalarını şuradan indirin /var/www/html directory and set permission.

cd /var/www/html && wget https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz && tar -xvzf latest.tar.gz && mv -v wordpress/* /var/www/html && rm -rf index.nginx-debian.html latest.tar.gz wordpress && chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/ && sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www

Gelecekte izinleri güncellemek için aşağıdaki komutu kullanın

chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/ && sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www

9. Updating DNS

WordPress’i yerel olarak barındırıyorsanız, proxy’yi atlamak istiyorsanız veya sıfır kesinti süresiyle geçiş yapmak istiyorsanız, bu adım kullanışlıdır. Ben genellikle şu durumlarda tercih ederim Static WordPress Dev area. 😉

  • DNS’i işaret etmenin iki yolu vardır. Siteyi Vultr’a taşıyorsanız ve önce yerel olarak test etmek istiyorsanız, hosts dosyanızı düzenleyin ve oraya yönlendirin.

Windows için

  • Go to properties of ‪C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts
  • Change “Security” permission to full control for your current Username
  • Artık hosts dosyasını Sistem kullanıcınız altında serbestçe düzenleyebilir ve kaydedebilirsiniz.
# For same machine you can have localhost address else public IP
127.0.0.1 example.com
127.0.0.1 www.example.com

İşte böyle görünmeli.

For Mac or Linux

Aşağıdaki komutu kullanarak hosts dosyasını düzenleyebilirsiniz

sudo nano /etc/hosts

Updating DNS with Cloudflare

  • Her şey mükemmelse ve sitenizi canlı hale getirmek istiyorsanız, Login to Cloudflare DNS and update new IP
A@IPV4 address
AAAA@IPV6 address
CNAMEwwwexample.com

where @ denotes naked domain example.com

9. Alan adınızı ziyaret ederek setup WordPress

Eğer tutmak istiyorsan non-www version domain for your WordPress then visit non-www version else www.

https://example.com
  • Provide Database login credential to begin WordPress Setup
  • Run Installation
  • Fill up Basic details of your new Site and Install WordPress.
  • Login to WordPress
  • If you used FastCGI server block then first thing you should do is installing NGINX Cache plugin and configuring /var/www/cache as cache path.

Other neccessary things

WordPress’in giden e-postalarını göndermek için SMTP eklentisi Hizmetlerini kullanın, aksi takdirde şifre sıfırlama bağlantısını, iletişim formu 7 mesajlarını alamazsınız.

Son olarak WordPress kurulumu tamamlandı. Her zaman yedek tutun.

Bu makaleyi okuyarak değerli vaktinizi ayırdığınız için çok teşekkür ederim. Bir sonraki derste görüşmek üzere!

Daha fazlasını ister misiniz?
Her gün Öğretici Dersler aldığınızı hayal edin! Bu harika bir şey.

Yorum yapın

“Ubuntu 22.04, NGINX, MariaDB ve PHP 8.2 ile WordPress Kurulumu” üzerine 69 yorum

  1. Thanks a lot Gulshan. You save my breath

    I search everywhere but not find any good article

    You explained very well along with security concern

    well done

    Cevapla
  2. Thank you for your tutorial, its the first one that actually showed me the wordpress setup page.

    When I went to upload a plugin I received this message. “The uploaded file exceeds the upload_max_filesize directive in php.ini”

    How do I increase the max filesize?

    Cevapla
    • Add below cron job

      crontab -e

      Add below command and save.

      15 3 * * 7 certbot renew --post-hook "service nginx restart"

      Cevapla
  3. Hello Gulshan Bro, First i want to say you that this is very beautiful and required post. I am really appreciating your work. but i have a problem can you please tell me
    i have a droplet with digitalocean ($5/month plan) and i want to host multiple wordpress sites only with nginx(lemp ubuntu 18.04).
    In simple i mean that this tutorial is complete to install a single wordpress and i did it but tell host it in some other sites

    Cevapla
    • Hey Rohit,

      Assuming, second site is example2.org

      You need to follow steps this way.

      1. create a new directory and add WordPress (Ref: steps 31)

      cd /var/www/
      mkdir example2
      wget https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz
      tar -xvzf latest.tar.gz
      mv -v wordpress/* /var/www/example2
      rm -rf index.nginx-debian.html latest.tar.gz wordpress
      chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/
      sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www

      2. Create a new Server block with root path located to new directory as created in step 1.


      cd /etc/nginx/sites-available/
      nano gulshankumar-org

      server {
      listen 80;
      root /var/www/example2;
      index index.php index.html index.htm;
      server_name example2.org www.example2.org;
      ...

      3. Point your example2.org domain to DNS, then install SSL

      certbot --nginx -d example2.org -d www.example2.org

      4. Create new MySQL database
      sudo mysql -u root -p
      create database example2;
      grant all on example2.* to example2@localhost identified by 'TYPE HERE PASSWORD';
      flush privileges;
      exit;

      5. Proceed to Installation by visiting your site https://example2.org

      Let me know if you have any additional question. You can always visit our forum for quick assistance.

      Thanks & Regards,
      Gulshan

      Cevapla
      • Hello Gulshan you written a comprehensive guide i highly appreciate your work. Can you help me with an error? Actually i have two websites the first website i have already hosted on Vultr following the above guide.

        But when try to host a another WordPress website iam getting error. I followed the above steps you mentioned in comments. But still not able to fix it. The error is my website not working after hosting another WordPress website.

        If possible please guide me step by step instructions. It will help me alot. Thanks in advance.

        Cevapla
        • Consider checking log available at /var/log/nginx/ directory. Use nginx -t command to see what mistake causing issue.

          Cevapla
    • If your WordPress General Settings has www version, server will do automatically. No additional action is required. In case you started WordPress installation at non-www version, then you need to migrate by changing at Database level.

      Cevapla
  4. Hi would like to know after configuring Fastcgi do we still need other caching plugin to speed up WordPress site?

    Cevapla
  5. Hey Gulshan,
    In the 7th step while texting ngnix I got
    nginx: [emerg] open() “/etc/nginx/sites-enabled/example.com” failed (2: No such file or directory) in /etc/nginx/nginx.conf:62
    nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test failed

    This error. How I can solve it? also what the error.

    Cevapla
    • Please delete your existing server block and create again at sites-available and symlink at sites-enabled directory. The step 6 and 7 cover that clearly. Consider following patiently without any error. If you still face any problem, do let me know. Thanks for taking to leave your valuable comment.

      Cevapla
  6. How to check if fastcgi cache is working or not? while running sudo curl -I https://example.com it is not showing x-cache parameter

    Cevapla
  7. Hi Gulshan, I am also receiving the test failed error on step 7. I have tried several times now on different setup and still stuck here. Please could you help?

    Cevapla
    • Please carefully read the post and then copy-paste code in Terminal. Sometime you need to replace with your own domain. Doing mistake can return error. Else, no wise. I use this guide everyday for myself. I am not aware about any problem.

      In case of trouble
      1. Run test using nginx -t
      2. Check logs to get proper hint tail -f /var/log/nginx/error.log

      3. Delete existing or earlier created virtualhost
      rm /etc/nginx/sites-available/default && rm /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default
      4. Make sure to replace example.com at all places, a) when you create conf file, its naming. b) when you add conf file and c) when you create symlink, check your command its conf file name must match with first process.

      I feel in most cases, chances are you did not replaced server_name .example.com; to own domain, or you did not obtained SSL. All steps are written in serial order as it should be.

      Cevapla
  8. This article is like Life-Saver for one of my website. I was about to move from Google Cloud to Digital Ocean because the trial was expired and I also wanted to use DigitaOcean because it is in-expensive yet powerful and gives great experience.

    Previously, I used webinoly stack which was straightforward for installing WordPress but later on I got to know from Gulshan that there are so many issues with that stack so, this time I was going to do it manually. I checked the official guide by Digital ocean but end up with many confusion and issues. Then, I fortunately asked Gulshan for help and he recommended this article for me.

    I installed WordPress easily and very fast even fast that Webinoly stack. Thanks a lot Gulshan for writing this amazing article. Hats off to you bro!!🎩

    Cevapla
  9. I alwyas keep this guide bookmarket to my web browser! You never know when I would need to setup a new LEMP server ! Thanks Gulshan

    Cevapla
      • What are the differences if any between doing this method and using the vultr 1 click install? I have also read about centminmod. Is that somrthing u will recommend for having a fast LEMP stack? Tnx

        Cevapla
  10. The FastCGI server block config throws 404 Errors.

    fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.4-fpm-example.sock;
    should be:
    fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.4-fpm.sock;

    And it is missing config for location /
    This config must be defined:

    location / {
    try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php$is_args$args;
    }

    Cevapla
    • I see, it was intended for seperate user. But, to keep generic I have corrected. Thanks for pointing out.

      Cevapla
      • Without the location / block only the home page was accessible.

        When I added the below block i was able to access the post and pages.

        location / {
        try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php$is_args$args;
        }

        Cevapla
  11. Hey bro what is your thoughts on EasyEngine and SlickStack etc or one click app instead to automate? what is your favorite and will you make any tut bro

    Cevapla
  12. hello gulshanji i wanted to use cloudflare ssl direct from thier website and not thru api with fast cgi then what would the config

    Cevapla
  13. What do you think about Plesk Panel?
    It is easy to install plesk and create a wordpress site.
    Easy to find trial keys and we can use it unlimited.
    If it expires sites goes on ftp works and only plesk panel does not work but there are too much trial keys
    It has nginx cache.

    Do you recommend why and why not?
    Thanks

    Cevapla
  14. Can we create multi wordpress sites on different domain in the same machine with this
    method?

    I think only changement is in the FastCGI?

    server {
    root /var/www/aaa.com/wordpress;
    index index.php index.html index.htm;
    server_name .aaa.com;
    client_max_body_size 0;

    server {
    root /var/www/bbb.com/wordpress;
    index index.php index.html index.htm;
    server_name .bbb.com;
    client_max_body_size 0;

    server {
    root /var/www/ccc.com/wordpress;
    index index.php index.html index.htm;
    server_name .ccc.com;
    client_max_body_size 0;

    is this make a problem cache path is the same path for 3 web site? /var/www/cache

    Is this method works?
    1 machine 3 different domain and wordpress?

    Thanks

    Cevapla
  15. I have 2 questions

    1) What if i have 2 domains on different cloudflare accounts?

    Create a cloudflare.ini file inside /root/.secrets/ directory.
    mkdir -p /root/.secrets/ && cd /root/.secrets/ && nano cloudflare.ini
    Add below code and save using CTRL+O and exit using CTRL+X
    dns_cloudflare_email = “your-cloudflare-email@example.com”
    dns_cloudflare_api_key = “XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX”

    /root/.secrets/1domaincloudfare.ini
    /root/.secrets/2domaincloudfare.ini

    certbot certonly –dns-cloudflare –dns-cloudflare-credentials 1domaincloudfare.ini -d example.com,*.1domain.com –preferred-challenges dns-01
    certbot certonly –dns-cloudflare –dns-cloudflare-credentials 2domaincloudfare.ini -d example.com,*.2domain.com –preferred-challenges dns-01

    Do this work?

    2) If we have 2 domains in the same account on cloudflare can we use 1 cloudflare.ini

    certbot certonly –dns-cloudflare –dns-cloudflare-credentials /root/.secrets/cloudflare.ini -d 1domain.com,*.example.com –preferred-challenges dns-01
    certbot certonly –dns-cloudflare –dns-cloudflare-credentials /root/.secrets/cloudflare.ini -d 2domain.com,*.example.com –preferred-challenges
    dns-01

    3) If we dont use cloudflare what will our ns for domain?
    CLoud VPNs IP?

    ns1= 68.28.65.84
    ns2= 68.28.65.84

    Is this right?

    thanks for your replies

    Cevapla
  16. which is the best & compatible server side cache plugin If I use FastCGI server block code along with Nginx Cache plugin..

    W3 Total Cache or WP Rocket

    Cevapla
  17. I finally installed wordpress with this guide. But I see only www version but not the non-www version. Is there any changes that I need to do.

    Redirects to www version even If I enter non-www version.

    Cevapla
    • You need to point DNS records for both hostnames. Second, make sure dot is not missing from the beginning of example.com in this code – server_name .example.com; in the NGINX connfig at step 6. Another thing, Redirect from www to non-www or vice-versa (as neccessary) is taken care automatically from WordPress. You do not need to put any extra code for it.

      Cevapla
  18. For Nginx cache helper (I take this info from offical site
    There’s a ‘purge all’ button? Does it purge the whole site?
    Yes, it does. It physically empties the cache directory. It is set by default to /var/run/nginx-cache/.

    So the default is /var/run/nginx-cache/
    can we change fastcgi_cache_path /var/www/cache to /var/run/nginx-cache/ ?

    Thanks

    Cevapla
    • Önbellek dizininiz farklıysa, bunu wp-config.php dosyanıza ekleyerek geçersiz kılabilirsiniz.

      define('RT_WP_NGINX_HELPER_CACHE_PATH','/var/www/nginx-cache/')

      Cevapla
  19. location ~* .(css|gif|ico|svg|jpeg|jpg|js|png)$ {
    expires 1y;
    log_not_found off;
    }

    is this code for page caching?
    I use cloudflare so it has page cache too.
    If i use that can i remove it from codes?
    Can you please explain what is this code for?

    Thanks

    Cevapla
    • That code is for setting up 1 year browser caching for static files. You may use Cloudflare Page caching as normally you do. There shouldn’t be any problem.

      Cevapla
  20. Can you explain me what is the difference between inactive and fastcgi_cache_valid values? Can you explain them please? Thanks

    Cevapla
  21. Exactly followed the same steps, but at the end i am getting 502 bad gateway. I built some sites with the same steps before, however i don’t know what changed now.

    Cevapla
    • Consider checking the error log using command tail -f /var/log/nginx/error.log to get a hint about exact issue.

      Cevapla
      • getting this
        tail: cannot open ‘/var/log/error.log’ for reading: No such file or directory
        tail: no files remaining

        Cevapla
  22. Successfully install wordpres for a single site and do the same i mean for another domain on the same instance but after creating server blocks get “nginx: (emerg) duplicate listen options for (::):443 in /etc/nginx/sites-enabled” on nginx -t

    How Can i solve this?

    Cevapla